On January 13, 2022, the Supreme Court of the United States issued a split decision (found here) staying the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) Vaccination-or-Test Emergency Temporary Standard (ETS) that would require employers with 100 or more employees to either impose a mandatory vaccination policy or, alternatively, mandate that unvaccinated workers wear a face covering while at work and be subject to a COVID-19 test every seven days. The decision was issued per curiam by the Court with conservative Justices Neil Gorsuch, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito issuing a separate concurring opinion and the Court’s three liberal Justices, Stephen Breyer, Elena Kagan, and Sonia Sotomayor, all dissenting.
The Court found in its decision that OSHA’s vaccination-or-test rule operated “as a blunt instrument” across businesses of all different kinds without “distinction based on industry or risk of exposure to COVID-19.” In exercising its authority under § 655(c)(1) of the Occupational and Safety Health Act (OSH Act) to issue an emergency temporary standard, the Court found that OSHA can only exercise the authority that Congress had provided to it. OSHA’s ETS would have required 84 million Americans to either obtain a COVID-19 vaccine or undergo weekly medical testing at their own expense. The Court found that OSHA’s exercise of such authority under § 655(c)(1) “is no ‘everyday exercise of federal power,’” but, rather, “a significant encroachment into the lives—and health—of a vast number of employees.” The Court held that OSHA had overstepped its authority in issuing its vaccination-or-test mandate because the OSH Act empowers OSHA to set occupational safety standards in the workplace, but not broad public health measures. Because COVID-19 can and does spread at home, in schools, during sporting events and everywhere else that people gather, the Court ruled that, while COVID-19 is a hazard, it is not an occupational hazard in most workplaces. The Court stated that by “[p]ermitting OSHA to regulate the hazards of daily life—simply because most Americans have jobs and face those same risks while on the clock—would significantly expand OSHA’s regulatory authority without clear congressional authorization.” The Court concluded that, while “Congress has indisputably given OSHA the power to regulate occupational dangers, it has not given that agency the power to regulate public health more broadly.”
The Department of Labor quickly issued a statement (found here) from the U.S. Secretary of Labor, Marty Walsh, appearing on OSHA’s website addressing the Department of Labor’s disappointment in the Court’s decision. Secretary Walsh rejected the Court’s premise of its ruling that OSHA did not have the authority established by Congress to enact the ETS. Secretary Walsh stated:
OSHA promulgated the ETS under clear authority established by Congress to protect workers facing grave danger in the workplace, and COVID is without doubt such a danger…We urge all employers to require workers to get vaccinated or tested weekly to most effectively fight this deadly virus in the workplace. Employers are responsible for the safety of their workers on the job, and OSHA has comprehensive COVID-19 guidance to help them uphold their obligation.
Secretary Walsh, in his statement, reminded all employers that OSHA will do everything within its authority to hold employers accountable for protecting workers under its arsenal of enforcement tools, including under OSH Act’s General Duty Clause.
For now, the case heads back to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit where that court will determine the final disposition of the applicants’ petitions for review of OSHA’s ETS. Depending on the action of the Sixth Circuit, the case could head back to the Supreme Court of the United States for final disposition. We will keep you updated as matters develop in this ongoing case.
As always, O’Neil, Cannon, Hollman, DeJong & Laing S.C. is here for you to protect your interests. We encourage you to reach out to our labor and employment law team with any questions, concerns, or legal issues related to workplace safety issues arising from or related to COVID-19.